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Two leadership approaches:

Top down versus bottom up

Choosing between collaboration loss or captivity

· team,to-sort


  1. Variety and overlap assume organizations that are similar to the networks.
  2. There are multiple actors involved in decision-making.
  3. As nodes in a network, these actors like nodes are related to each other .
  4. Every proposed decision will result in a push and pull among several of these nodes with unpredictable outcomes.

How to decide in such a networked organization?

Top-Down approach

  • Definition: the leader using her formal authority directly (command and control)
  • Pros: clear, peace
  • Cons: makes organization reactive, little potential for cooperative behavior

Bottom-up approach:

  • Definition: telling organizational members what to do, the leader is trusting the lower levels to generate their own problems and solutions
  • Pros: respects people's knowledge, potential for cooperative behavior
  • Cons: leader may become captive